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It is named for the American geologist Alfred Hulse Brooks, who first delineated the range’s geologic character.

Alaskan mountains, three principal mountain groups of far northwestern North America—the Brooks Range, Alaska Range, and Aleutian Range—found in the U. They include the highest peak in Arctic foothills, which extend the Rocky Mountains in an east-west arc from the border with Canada across northern Alaska.

The mountain ranges of Alaska give their state a rugged and beautiful terrain across its entire expanse.

The Brooks Range forms the drainage divide between waters flowing northward across the North Slope into the Arctic Ocean, those flowing westward into Kotzebue Sound, and those flowing southward into the Yukon River drainage system, which empties into the Bering Sea.

Several major rivers have eroded headward into the range to form low passes, the best-known being Atigun Pass, at the head of the Dietrich River, connects the oil-producing areas of the North Slope with interior Alaska and the south.

Most of the area now is characterized by permafrost. The great sweep of ranges extends south of the Yukon from the Canadian border to the Bering Sea; north of the river the ranges are discontinuous.

The eastern highlands consist of several separate mountain chains (e.g., the White Mountains) with average elevations of about 4,000 to 5,000 feet and a few ridges rising some 1,000 to 2,000 feet (300 to 600 metres) above those uplands. No glaciers are present in the region, and permafrost is discontinuous, occurring only at the higher elevations.

Much of the peninsula consists of broad, convex hills and ridges with an average elevation of about 2,000 feet surmounted by more rugged mountain groups.

A few peaks rise above 3,000 feet; the highest, at 4,714 feet (1,437 metres), is Kigluaik Mountains in the southwestern part of the peninsula. The exposed bedrock is early Paleozoic metamorphics, Cretaceous sediments, and intrusions of Mesozoic igneous rock.

The western highlands are subdivided into several smaller groups, notably the Kuskokwim Mountains.

Those ranges are somewhat lower and more rolling than the eastern highlands, with ridges trending southwest-northeast.