Fish in the dating

24 Jun

Because of this complexity, the presence of pain in an animal, or another human for that matter, cannot be determined unambiguously using observational methods, but the conclusion that animals experience pain is often inferred on the basis of likely presence of phenomenal consciousness which is deduced from comparative brain physiology as well as physical and behavioural reactions.

experience pain in a way analogous to humans, and that analgesics are effective in these two classes of vertebrates.

In 2012 the American philosopher Gary Varner reviewed the research literature on pain in animals.

This process evokes a reflex arc response generated at the spinal cord and not involving the brain, such as flinching or withdrawal of a limb.

Nociception is found, in one form or another, across all major animal taxa.

At the turn of the century, studies were published showing that arthritic rats self-select analgesic opiates.

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